PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

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PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

Are you experiencing some unusual problems and you cannot understand what it might be? Do you feel you suddenly have excess hair growth on your face or body? Are you tired most of the time? Irregular menstrual cycle? Are you also trying to get pregnant and are unable to? One of the reasons could be PCOS or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

So, what are PCOS?

PCOS are small little sacs that fill with fluid and grow on your ovaries. They are called cysts. The causes of PCOS could be Genetic, Hormonal or Metabolic and if left untreated can become reproductive. PCOS affects women of all age groups. It can cause Endometrial Cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease.

It is also the leading cause of Infertility. The basic pathology is development of insulin resistance due to which there is hormone imbalance leading to anovulation i.e. ovaries fail to ovulate cyclically due to which patient starts having delayed periods or no periods unless given any hormonal withdrawal.

The long-term hazards include increase of male hormones and decrease of female hormones lead to other symptoms like hirsutism and acne.

Some main causes of PCOS

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Obesity in adolescence
  • Increase intake of junk food
  • Consuming less of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Lack of exercise
  • Stress

Symptoms of PCOS
Some common signs and symptoms are

  • irregular periods
  • excess facial and body hair, severe acne
  • bulky ovaries with a typical cystic look
  • insulin resistance.
  • anxiety and depression.
  • infertility.
  • weight gain (obesity) and male pattern hair loss

Treatment of PCOS

If there is an issue of infertility then treating PCOS can go long way in ensuring pregnancy. The first line of treatment is Weight Loss, Lifestyle changes, PCOS Diet and Exercise, Medication for Hormonal imbalance and Symptomatic Treatment for Acne and Hair Growth.

Infertility and PCOS

PCOS are known to be a serious cause of infertility. Detection of PCOS consists of three main criteria and the presence of any TWO of these indicate PCOS.

Detection through Clinical Criteria-

    • BMI
    • HIRSUTISM
    • ACNE

DELAYED PERIODS

Detection through Biochemical Criteria-

  • FSH
  • LH
  • TESTOSTERONE
  • SERUM INSULIN
  • FSH/LH

ULTRASOUND shows a Necklace of Pearls Appearance of Ovaries

Infertility in PCOS handled by giving different ovulation inducing drugs. If a patient is diagnosed with PCOS and the patient wants a child then the treatment should focus on two aspects mainly-

  • decrease insulin resistance by using various drug formulations and motivating patient to wait and,
  • trying ovulation induction so that patient can conceive.

Dealing with infertility in PCOS

The approach used to treat this condition includes ovulation induction with follicular monitoring. If the ovulation is documented and semen analysis normal then the same method is continued for 3 cycles. If no pregnancy occurs then IUI is added for 3 cycles and the last resort is IVF.
These patients can opt for IVF or Assisted Reproductive Technology which has a high rate in successful pregnancies.

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